The overall objective of this project is to reduce the environmental impacts of malt and beer production by reducing energy inputs; it also seeks to improve the flavour quality and stability of beers through the application of state of the art, interdisciplinary scientific knowledge to the novel malting and brewing production processes we propose to develop. To remain competitive on the international market, improvements in the shelf-life of beer (currently limited by flavour stability) must be delivered.

The main scientific objectives of the research program are:
1. Development of novel raw materials of high potential to be used in malting and brewing,
2. introduction of innovations in malting and brewing technology, including lowering of the heat input during kilning, reducing the time of wort boiling and introducing new techniques during fermentation,
3. improvement of the sustainability of malting and brewing operations through interactive processing, decreased energy usage and reduction of CO2 emissions.

ESR 1

University 1 (employer)

University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland

Supervisor

prof. Aleksander Poreda

University 2

Ghent University, Belgium

Supervisor

prof. Anita Van Landschoot

PhD thesis

Evaluation of innovative raw materials suitable for production of high quality malt and beer.

Objectives of the research

The aims of the project include:
1. Exploring the potential of innovative raw materials to produce malt and wort suitable for obtaining high quality, flavour stable beer, together with the impact on the process (particularly filtration performance) (WP2, WP5, WP6).
2. Understanding the fate of metal ions during the modified malting and brewhouse processes (WP4) both in reference malt worts, as well as for the innovative malts (with particular emphasis on the impacts of mash filtration).
3. Providing the breeders and maltsers with a very detailed source of knowledge, allowing for a wider choice of raw materials, with a lower business risk associated with application of new (unknown and not well-documented) raw materials and adjuncts (WP2).

Mobility

Secondment to UN (Feb 2018, 2 months);
Secondment to UG (Jan 2019, 6 months)
Industrial secondment to a brewery of Carlsberg (Aug 2019, 1 month)

ESR 2

University 1 (employer)

University of Copenhagen, Denmark

Supervisor

prof. Mogens Larsen Andersen

University 2

University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland

Supervisor

prof. Aleksander Poreda

PhD thesis

Malts for control of trace elements with pro-oxidative effects during the brewing process and in finished beer

Objectives of the research

1.To assess  the possibility to obtain beer with improved flavour stability by setting up schemes for minimising the levels of iron and copper in beer by rationally utilising selected malts together with novel technologies for malting and brewing.

2. Obtain a better understanding of the distribution of iron and copper species in worts and beer, and their individual impacts on the final beer quality and stability.

Mobility

Secondment to UA Krakow (Aug 2018, 6 months)

Secondment to UN Nottingham (Mar 2019, 2 months)

Industrial secondment to a factory of Boortmalt (Aug 2019, 1 month)

ESR 3

University 1 (employer)

University of Copenhagen, Denmark

Supervisor

prof. Birthe Moller Jespersen

University 2

KU Leuven, Belgium

Supervisor

Prof. Guido Aerts

PhD thesis

Stability of beers made with mixtures of lightly to moderately kilned malts

Objectives of the research

  1. To characterise the flavour stabilities of and contents of antioxidative compounds in beers made with malts with varying degrees of kilning (from no kilning to production of moderately colored malt).
  2. Assess  the possibility to improve beer flavour stability by using minimally kilned malt with combinations of more extensively kilned malts.
  3. Describe the changes of central mechanisms of reactions with negative flavour impacts in beers made with increasingly kilned malts.

Mobility

Secondment to TU (Sept 2018, 2 months)

Secondment to KU (Jan 2019, 6 months)

Industrial secondment to a brewery of Carlsberg (Aug 2019, 1 month)

ESR 4

University 1 (employer)

University of Nottingham, United Kingdom

Supervisor

prof. David Cook

University 2

KU Leuven, Belgium

Supervisor

Dr Gert De Rouck

PhD thesis

Reducing the energy inputs required for malting through omission of the kilning process

Objectives of the research

  1. To significantly reduce the energy and water inputs to the malting and brewing processes by developing a process to brew beer using ‘green’ (germinated, but not dried) malt, thus saving the substantial energy input associated with kilning and conserving the water contained in the green malt.
  2. To optimise a putative process based on minimising energy (hence carbon footprint) and water inputs and demonstrate that high quality lager can be manufactured in this way.
  3. To evaluate the impacts on flavour stability of brewing using green malt. This is important to establish because one can make arguments that such a process will either improve flavour stability (reduced heat load should reduce the pool of staling aldehydes) or worsen it (since lipoxygenase activity is regulated by heat treatment during kilning).

Mobility

Secondment to VLB (Feb 2018, 1 month)

Secondment to KU (Dec 2018, 6 months

Secondment to UC (July 2019, 1 month)

Industrial secondment to a factory of Boortmalt (Aug 2019, 1 month)

ESR 5

University 1 (employer)

University of Ghent, Belgium

Supervisor

prof. Anita Van Landschoot

University 2

University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland

Supervisor

prof. Aleksander Poreda

PhD thesis

Optimizations in yeast performance and fermentation process

Objectives of the research

  1. To find the best conditions for propagated and harvested yeast for the fermentations with innovative raw materials (adjuncts and the use of green malt for brewing).
  2. To optimize the propagation of yeast for fermentation at higher temperatures and for fermentation of high gravity brewing with ‘new’ raw materials.
  3. To select best conditions for harvested or stored yeast for fermentation at higher temperatures and for fermentation of high gravity brewing with ‘new’ raw materials.
  4. To investigate the opportunities of commercially dried yeast for the ‘new’ fermentations.

Mobility

Secondment to UA (Aug 2018, 6 months)

Secondment to UC (Mar 2019, 2 months)

Industrial secondment to a brewery of Carlsberg (Aug 2019, 1 month)

ESR 6

University 1 (employer)

TU Berlin, Germany

Supervisor

prof. Frank-Jurgen Methner

University 2

KU Leuven, Belgium

Supervisor

prof. Luc De Cooman

PhD thesis

Strategies to Reduce the Iron Intake During the Brewing Process with respect to Flavour Stability

Objectives of the research

  1. Getting strategies to reduce the iron intake of during the brewing process by optimisation of the water treatment and reduction of iron intake.
  2. Reduction of the release of iron from the malt during mashing
  3. Reduction of iron during mashing and lautering process
  4. Increase of complexing compounds during the brewing process to reduce the content of transition metals
  5. Alternative, environmental friendly and sustainable filtration methods to reduce the iron intake during filtration

Mobility

Secondment to UC, (Feb 2018, 2 months)

Secondment to KU (Nov 2018, 6 months)

Industrial secondment to a brewery of Carlsberg (Aug 2019, 1 month)

ESR 7

University 1 (employer)

KU Leuven, Belgium

Supervisor

prof. Luc De Cooman

University 2

University of Nottingham, United Kingdom

Supervisor

Dr Chris Powell

PhD thesis

Determination of critical factors in malt production related to the flavour stability of final beer

Objectives of the research

1) Malting trials on lab scale:

  • Determination of the time required to kill the embryo by asphyxiation – viability measurement as a function of asphyxiation (Tetrazolium test, determination of LOX activity) and effect of treatment on enzyme potential (amylolytic, proteolytic, glucanolytic activity)
  • Blanching via steam injection – effect of time of treatment on viability and enzyme potential

2) Malting on pilot scale with conditioning of green malt before drying, based on the results obtained on lab scale: Blanching, Asphyxiation (CO2 accumulation and ‘brühen’), Microflora management, Specific combinations of above pretreatments;

3) The most promising procedures for innovative malt production will be repeated 5 times on pilot scale in order to determine the reproducibility of malt production.

4) Detailed malt analyses on the innovative malts.

5) Brewing on pilot scale with the different innovative malts and a standard, reference malt, respectively.

6) Analytical-sensorial evaluation of fresh beers brewed with innovative malt in order to evaluate the impact of novel malting on beer quality.

7) Analytical-sensorial evaluation of aged beers brewed with innovative malt in order to evaluate the impact of novel malting on beer flavour stability.

Mobility

Secondment to TU (Feb 2018, 2 months)

Secondment to UN (Nov 2018, 6 months)

Secondment to FlavorActiV (June 2019, 2 weeks) Industrial secondment to a factory of Boortmalt (Aug 2019, 1 month)

ESR 8

University 1 (employer)

KU Leuven, Belgium

Supervisor

prof. Luc De Cooman

University 2

University of Copenhagen, Denmark

Supervisor

prof. Mogens Larsen Andersen

PhD thesis

Unravelling formation and/or release of beer staling aldehydes

Objectives of the research

The finding of thiazolidine compounds in beer as potential sources of ageing off-flavour aldehydes is new in brewing science. The overall objective of ESR8 is to understand the formation of free and bound-state aldehydes (imines, bisulfite adducts, and especially the newly discovered thiazolidine compounds) and to unravel the role of these different types of adducts as potential precursors of key principles of beer ageing, i.e. staling aldehydes.

Mobility

Secondment to UC (Aug 2017, 3 months)

Secondment to UC (Sept 2018, 3 months)

Secondment to FlavorActiV (Feb 2018 and June 2019, 2 weeks each)

Industrial secondment to a brewery of Carlsberg (Aug 2019, min. 1 month)